GAMALIEL BRADFORD(1863-1932)American biographer. Achieved literary fame as a biographer with his Lee, the American (1912). He perfected the method of writing “psychographs,” or short portraits of historical figures. A novel approach that identified subjects' essential characteristics from a succession of significant moments in their lives. His works in this area include Confederate Portraits (1914), Union Portraits (1916), and Damaged Souls (1923).