MARSHALL FIELD (1834-1906). Field, a pioneering retail merchant, arrived in Chicago in 1856. He got a job as a traveling salesman in a wholesale drygoods firm. By 1860, he had become a junior partner in the firm and by 1865, he had left this firm to become a major partner in a rival firm. In a nine-year period, Field had gone from being a $400 a year clerk to the head of a successful business in which he had a quarter million dollar interest. By 1881, Field had bought out his partners and renamed the firm Marshall Field and Company. Along with this name change, Field ushered in a new era in merchandising; prices were marked on merchandise, goods were not misrepresented, and customers could exchange unsatisfactory goods. Field was able to undersell competitors because he bought goods for cash at wholesale, and he pioneered in developing window displays and advertising campaigns. The firm had its own manufacturing operations, and made many of the items sold in its stores. At the time of Field's death, sales had reached $68,000,000 a year.